Refining is a process in steel production to reduce the mass concentration of carbon in pig iron. Carbon is the alloying element with the greatest influence on material properties. By changing the carbon content, among other things, hardness, strength and machinability can be influenced.

In steel grades where a lower carbon concentration is required, the carbon content is reduced with the use of oxygen. This process can also be used to remove other steel contaminants from the pig iron. There is a wide variety of different processes for refining, which can be applied to iron in solid or liquid state.

See also

Accompanying Elements

Steel does not only consist of iron and carbon. Other elements can influence the properties of steel.

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Alloying Elements

There is a large number of different alloying elements. Each one influences the material properties.

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Brinell hardness test

Performing the hardness test by means of a ball pressure test according to the Swedish engineer Johann August Brinell.

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