Nickel is classified as a transition metal. People have been using this metal for over 5,000 years. Nickel, together with other ores, was used to make bronze alloys. In China at that time it was already known as white copper.
Nickel is mainly used as an alloying element for stainless steels. It is also added to case-hardening steels, heat-treatable steels and cryogenic steels to significantly increase their ductility. However, it is also used as a coating metal for the refinement of metal objects.
|Property||Influence (1)||Degree (1)||Influence (2)||Degree (2)|
|Rust resistance||no bearing||0||Improvement||+ 2|
|Hardness||Improvement||+ 1||Decrease||- 2|
|Strength||Improvement||+ 1||Improvement||+ 1|
|Yield strength||Improvement||+ 1||Decrease||- 1|
|Elasticity||no bearing||0||no bearing||0|
|Heat resistance||Improvement||+ 1||Improvement||+ 3|
|Carbide formation||no bearing||0||no bearing||0|
|Wear resistance||Decrease||- 2||no bearing||0|
|Nitratability||no bearing||0||no bearing||0|
|Strain||no bearing||0||Improvement||+ 3|
|Reduction of area||no bearing||0||Improvement||+ 2|
|Notched Impact Strength||no bearing||0||Improvement||+ 3|
|Forgeability||Decrease||- 1||Decrease||- 3|
|Scaling||Decrease||- 1||Decrease||- 2|
|Machinability||Decrease||- 1||Decrease||- 3|
|(1) for pearlitic steels|
|(2) for austenitic steels|
The student of the great Swedish chemist Brandt, Axel Frederic Cronstedt, received a silver-white metal in an attempt to extract copper from an ore. He named it nickel after the mountain ghost copper-nickel. In the Middle Ages, miners believed this ore to be bewitched, because it looked like copper but did not deliver any.
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