Electric arc welding

Arc welding is generally defined as all welding processes in which the material is melted using an electric arc. Arcs are linked to two preconditions in their formation. The voltage and the amperage play an important role. The higher the voltage, the greater the distance the arc can cover. The closer the torch is the welding bead, the higher the current.

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During welding, the arc is generated between an electrode and the workpiece. By bringing the welding electrode close to the material, the gas is ionized from a certain distance. This makes the air conductive and the voltage can jump over the distance from the electrode to the workpiece. The ionization creates a plasma that is hot enough to melt steel and so it is possible to weld.

In the early days of this welding process, the electrode was made of simple steel, but the electrode melted away due to the intense heat during the welding process. The disadvantage of this was the direct contact with air, which caused strong reactions with the oxygen in the air we breathed. The oxygen caused slag formation and burn-off and reduced the quality of the weld seam because oxygen was brought into the weld pool during welding. Over time, this oxygen reacted with the material and formed rust, which meant that the weld seam could break.

In the further development of this process, the welding electrodes were equipped with additives that evaporated under the influence of the plasma and formed a shielding gas around the weld pool. As a result of the melting, the protective substances were also added to the molten metal, which significantly improved the quality of the welding seams.

Welding with electrodes has advantages. For example, this process can be carried out in practically any weather and even under water. Welding with electrodes is slower compared to other welding methods, but this also means that the weld pool can cool down more slowly. This leads to less stress and improves the later dimensional accuracy of the component.

See also

Argon

Argon is a noble gas and hardly reacts with other elements. For this reason argon is particularly suitable as a shielding gas for MIG/TIG welding.

Read more
Demmeler 3D welding tables

In order to weld complex assemblies perfectly, the components are fixed on the Demmeler table.

Read more
Impulse Arc Welding

Where is impulse arc welding used and what must be considered when using this method?

Read more

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