Scale always occurs when oxygen reacts with a metal surface at high temperatures. The deposits created by this reaction, which are interspersed with cracks and pores, are oxide layers and are also known as burn-off. Scale is removed mechanically, for example by knocking off, brushing, grinding or chemically by pickling.

See also

Accompanying Elements

Steel does not only consist of iron and carbon. Other elements can influence the properties of steel.

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Alloying Elements

There is a large number of different alloying elements. Each one influences the material properties.

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Brinell hardness test

Performing the hardness test by means of a ball pressure test according to the Swedish engineer Johann August Brinell.

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